The midbrain is penetrated by the cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius and surrounded by cisterns that contain CSF. Blockage of CSF flow may play a role in enlargement of the cerebal aqueduct and atrophy of the midbrain in Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis, as well as as signs of nystagmus and diplopia.
Dissociation of CSF flow between the cranial vault and spinal canal may play a role in many neurodegenerative diseases associated with hydrocephalus in children and adults such as: Dandy-Walker Syndrome, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, multisystem atrophy, and multipe sclerosis.
Poroelasticity of the brain plays a role in enlarged ventricles, called ventriculomegaly and shrinkage, called atrophy of structures that surround them causing many of the signs and symptoms seen in Alzheimer’s diseases, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.
Pulsatility and arterial pressure waves that are inadequately buffered in the brain may play a role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis.
The cerebellum may be affected in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Chiari malformations and Dandy-Walker syndrome due to obstruction of CSF flow in the foramen magnum and upper cervical spinal canal.
Degenerative changes in the cervical spine called spondylosis can cause tubulance, backjets and standing waves of CSF to form in the basal cisterns of the brain resulting in neurodegenerative processes and subsequent diseases such as Alzheimer’s Parkinson’s and multiple sclerosis.