Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Multiple Sclerosis, and Their Anatomical Causes

the downside of upright posture

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David Harshfield M.D., M.S., interventional radiologist -College of Integrative Medicine

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Sheridan - MS patient

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis are some of the most costly and critically important health care issues of the day. Yet, despite decades and billions of dollars in research their causes remain a mystery. All three, however, as well as other serious neurological conditions, may have similar root causes related to design changes in the skull, spine and circulatory system of the brain due to upright posture.

Upright posture caused significant changes in the anatomy of the skull, spine and circulatory system of the brain. For the most part those changes were beneficial but they also caused some negative consequences that sometimes show up as we age.

In addition to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and mutliple sclerosis other neurological conditions that share suspiciously similar roots include: migraine headaches, seizure disorders, transient ischemic attacks (mini strokes), normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) Chiari malformatons, tethered cord syndromes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) to name a few.

The problem with upright posture is that it stacks the skull on top of the nearly vertical segements of the spine. This decreases the tension loads that typically pull on the spine for support in four legged species. At the same time it increases the compression loads stacked up on the spine. The cervical spine or neck for example gets compressed by the weight of the head above. Likewise the lower segments, especially the low back, get compressed by the weight of the entire spine above it. The increased compressive forces cause us to lose a little height over the course of a day. Over the course of a lifetime it can do far more irreparable damage.

Upright posture also puts the foramen magnum of the skull directly over the spinal canal which houses the spinal cord. The foramen magnum is the large hole in the base of the skull through which the brainstem passes and becomes the spinal cord. This arrangement predisposes the brainstem to sinking into the foramen magnum resulting in a Chiari malformation. Among other things, Chiari malformations have been associated with mutliple sclerosis. In fact, Chiari malformations are probably far more common than we realize and play a role in other conditions as well.

The vertical arrangement of the spine also pulls on the brainstem from below. The pull comes from the attachment point at the tailend of cord, called the filum terminale, to the tailbone of the spine, called the coccyx. A short spinal cord can cause excessive tension in the lower cord, called tethered cord syndrome. Abnormal curvatures of the spine also cause tension on the cord, as do abnormal head and neck tilts. Consequently, short cords, scoliosis and head tilts can lead to Chiari malformations. Lastly, the design of the skull, particularly the length and slope of its base, likewise predispose humans to Chiari malformations.

The upper cervical spine is the critical link between the brain and cord. In addition to the cord, the upper cervical spine also contains the vertebral arteries, the vertebral veins and the subarchnoid space of the cord. Although they only supply about twenty percent of total brain circulation, the vertebral arteries supply the most critical structures that run the operating system of the brainstem. This includes the cerebellum, thalamus and hypothalamus, as well as the inner lobes of the temporal and occipital lobes of the brain.

The cerebellum controls muscle coordination, balance and gait (walking). It is closely connected to the inner ear and muscles related to maintaining balance during upright posture. Cerebellar problems are some of the earliest signs seen in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Loss of balance is also a common complaint in multiple sclerosis.

The thalamus is the router or great sensory switchboard of the brain. The hypothalamus controls all vegetative autonomic functions in the body. Autonomic signs and symptoms, especially incontinence are commonly seen in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis patients. The occipital lobe is related to vision. Among other things, the inner portion of the temporal lobe is important to long-term memory. So despite its smaller capacity when it comes to total brain blood flow, the vertebral arteries are vitally important.

The vertebral veins play a unique role in humans in that upright posture increases blood flow to the brain which requires an increase in drainage capacity in order to prevent backups of venous blood in the brain. The vertebral veins also play a role in transmitting respiratory waves to the brain, which helps move cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the brain. CSF plays an important role in the cushioning, protection and support of the brain. Venous drainage and CSF flow problems may play a role in the cause of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis.

The subarachnoid space of the cord passes through the upper cervical spine and contains CSF on its way back from the lower cord to the brain. Congestion or blockage of CSF flow can lead to a condiiton called hydrocephalus. In adults it is called normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Among other things, NPH has been associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Certain unusual cases of underdeveloped skulls can also result in NPH and symptoms similar to multiple sclerosis.

The health of the upper cervical spine is thus critically important to both blood and CSF flow and that makes it important to overall health. It is especially important to the health of the brain and cord. In addition to Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis this site discusses many common and important health conditions related to upright posture.

For further information about the book "The Downside of Upright Posture - The Anatomical Causes of Alzheimer's, Parkinsons, and Multiple Sclerosis" go to the book.

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The Upright Doctor Blog
This site discusses the role of insufficient venous drainage of the brain in the cause and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.
The Upright Doctor - About the Doctor
The name upright doctor comes from Dr. Flangan's research into the role of upright posture in neurodegenerative diseases.
Upright Doctor Book: The Downside of Upright Posture
Upright Doctor's book is a must-read for anyone interested in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis.
Physical Anthropology
Physical anthropology studies upright posture which predisposes humans to health problems and disease.
Alzheimer's Disease
A new theory suggets that Alzheimer's disease may be due to venous drainage issues similar to the role of CCSVI in MS.
Parkinson's Disease and NPH
Parkinson's disease is most likely caused by poor drainage of the brain resulting in normal pressure hydrocephalus, commonly called NPH.
Multiple Sclerosis
A new theory attributes the cause of multiple sclerosis to chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency or CCSVI.
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease
Normal pressure hydrocephalus, more commonly called NPH, may be the root cause of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
Dementia and Alzheimer's, although considered distinct conditions, have similar signs, symptoms and causes.
Chiari Malformation
A Chiari malformation causes compression of the brainstem in the foramen magnum.
Brain Anatomy
Basic brain anatomy is key to understanding the signs and symptoms of many diseases.
Skull Anatomy and Brain Diseases
The skull anatomy in humans predisposes them to neurodegenerative diseases of the brain and spinal cord.
Spine Anatomy
The anatomy of the human spine is unique in the animal world in it's ability to accommodate upright posture.
Diseases of the Spinal Cord
Upright posture appears to play a role in many diseases of the spinal cord.
Spine Injuries and Neurodegenerative Disease
Severe injuries to the spine, such as whiplash, can lead to neurodegenerative diseases.
Treatment, Prevention and Cure
The treatment , cure and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases such a Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis has entered a new era.
Exercise, Fitness and Health
There have been many contributions to exercise and fitness for health from the east and west.
The Substantia Nigra, Cisterns and Cerebral Aqueduct
The substantia nigra is susceptible to compression by an increase in CSF volume in the cisterns and cerebral aqueduct.
Diffuse Hyperintensity Signals
Diffuse hyperintensity signals are seen in traumatic axonal brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases such as vascular Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.
Parkinson's, Dementia, Neck Injuries and Sports
Neck injuries from sports most likely play a role in pugilistic Parkinson's disease and dementia.
Upright Health Site Search
For you to get the most information from this site Upright Health has added a site search.
Comments, Questions and Suggestions
This page allows readers to make comments, discuss issues, ask questions or make suggestions about topics they would like to read about on the site.
Cysts, Syrinxes and CSF
Cysts and syrinxes are associated with faulty CSF flow in the brain and cord.
The Foramen Magnum and Neurodegenerative Diseaes
This page includes the definition, anatomy and the link between the foramen magnum and its role in the cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and MS.
The Third Ventricle and Related Structures
One of four ventricles in the brain where obstructions to CSF outflow can affect the structures surrounding the third ventricle such as the thalamus and hypothalamus.


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For years researchers and pharmaceutical giants have been looking in the same direction for cures of neurodegenerative diseases and expecting better results.

Unfortunately, those in control of funding for research are not anxious to change their thinking about these conditions, how they are related, and what will eventually lead to prevention, better treatments and cures.

This book has been written to point those afflicted with these diseases in a new and promising direction. It was also written for researchers and doctors with open minds working on finding cures and treatments to alleviate the suffering of these individuals.

After reading it yourself you might just want to purchase one for your health care giver.

Click here to read more about the book and/or to make a purchase with free priority shipping.


Alzheimer's Disease
Arachnoid Granulations
Basal Ganglia
Body Building
Brain Anatomy
Brain Cooling and Cranial Veins
Cerebellar Tonsillar Ectopia, Race and Gender
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Cervical Spine and Cord
Cervical Spondylosis
and Neurodegenerative Disease

Chiari Malformations
Chiari Diagnosis and Treatment
Chiropractic Upper Cervical
Cranial Nerves
Cysts, Syrinxes and CSF
Diffuse Hyperintensity Signals
Dysautonomia, Multisystem Atrophy and Parkinson's
Ehlers Danlos
Foramen Magnum
The Fourth Ventricle
Hyperintensity Signals
Lateral Ventricles
Limbic System
Martial Arts
Multiple Sclerosis
MS Lesions
Multiple Sclerosis Treatment
Neurovascular Tunnels
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Optic Neuritis
Orthogonal Upper Cervical Correction
Parkinson's Disease
Parkinson's, Dementia and Neck Injuries
Pelvic Anatomy
Physical Anthropology
The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
The Posterior Fossa and Chiari Malformations
Racial Skull Design
Site Search
Skull Anatomy
Skull Base
Skull Deformation and Correction in Infants
Skull Diploe
Skull Shape and the Brain
Spinal Cord Diseases
Spine Anatomy
Spine Injuries
Substantia Nigra
Tethered Cord
Third Ventricle
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome
Tonsillar Ectopia
Treatments and Cures
The Upper Cervical Angle
Upper Cervical Strain
Venous Inversion Flows and Skull Shape
Vertebral Arteries
Vertebral Veins